3 Answers

  1. No, they are not, this is only one possible interpretation. But alternatives are also possible.

    As for atheism vs. However, in the case of modern religion, a significant part of the modern philosophy of religion is aimed precisely at showing how exactly religiosity can be combined with scientific discoveries. The Oxford philosopher Richard Swinburne, for example, tries to show that the” God hypothesis “is most logically economical (i.e., he uses Occam's razor against atheism), and Alvin Plantinga of the University of Notre Dame tries to show that the existence of intelligent design necessarily follows from the theory of evolution and the validity of biology (i.e., the existence of intelligent design). if there is a process of biological evolution and science reveals to us at least to some extent the true state of affairs in nature, then there is a God). How they do it is a long conversation, which in the context of this answer is not possible to go into in more detail, but both philosophers are quite authoritative. And these are just two examples, but in fact there are many more.

    As for materialism vs. non-materialism, then everything is even worse here. Materialism does not occupy a dominant place in modern ontology. He, of course, there are prominent members, but alternatives are more than enough, in a wide range of different nagged Kantian to such models as “neutral monism”, which implies the existence of a substance in a “neutral” (not physical and not perfect) condition (one of the new trends, incidentally, is actively discussed in the latest issue of Philosophy Now). And all these ontological discussions, of course, are based on current scientific discoveries, in particular, in the field of neuroscience, partly physics, etc. Materialism in this blooming clearing is only one of the possible concepts, and often considered relatively weak (for example, in solving some problems of the philosophy of consciousness) and forced to defend its right to exist.

  2. You can do without it. Hermas the Philosopher, in his Derision of the Pagans, mentions atheism among other philosophical movements of ancient Greece. The emergence of atheism is not related to the current era.

  3. It is difficult to say, rather unnecessary, why, because atheism is an anti-system religion. That is, atheism is characterized by signs of religion, for example-denial of God, even if the presence of God is proved by a scientific experiment-atheism will still not be able to recognize God, so it can be considered partly unscientific, but religious.

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