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  1. Descartes wrote something else: his famous phrase ego cogito ergo sum, which literally means ” I am conscious of myself ,and therefore I exist.” Indeed, it is possible to doubt the content of one's consciousness – something may well “seem” to me, but it is impossible to doubt the presence of doubt itself. This is a logical contradiction. And “I think means I exist” is an inaccurate translation that obscures what Descartes wanted to say. And he wanted to say that there is absolutely reliable knowledge: ego cogito, which means that I cannot doubt my existence. In this way, he solved the problem of obtaining such knowledge, which would be absolutely reliable.�

    In Parmenides: “one and the same thought and what (in this thought).” He drew attention to a seemingly simple fact: everything we think about is always “there” in some way, because it is impossible to think of nothing. This leads to a rather complex philosophical problem, which is called “the identity of being and thinking”. But this is not at all the same problem that Descartes solved. They did different things:)

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