4 Answers

  1. Jared Diamond's book Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fate of Human Societies is the best answer to this question. In the same place, it is proved that neither the color of the skin, nor the shape of the eyes do not affect the development of civilization.

  2. Development can occur either due to the desire to adapt to the environment(at the initial stages of the development of civilization), or due to competition with other people. Africa has a hot climate and enough food to feed its tribe. Intertribal competition was also absent to a sufficient extent, mainly due to the length of the territories and, again, the abundance of food. Therefore, Africans had no chance to compare with Europeans, who had problems with the climate and constant clashes between neighboring peoples.

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