2 Answers

  1. Intelligence as the ability to think or as the amount of knowledge? In the first case, intelligence is manifested in the speed of learning and acquiring a particular skill, in the second-in the ability to apply their knowledge, which, of course, should be quite a lot and, preferably, from different fields of science.

  2. Here is what Zhmurov V. A. writes::

    Intelligence is the ability of an individual to preserve and increase their cognitive potential, as well as to use it both in their own interests and in the interests of other people and society. Intelligence in this sense is a cognitive structure that combines the cognitive functions of an individual (reception, perception, perception, memory, thinking), his imagination and creative abilities, as well as the emotional and volitional qualities of his personality.

    The concept of intelligence does not lend itself to precise definition at all, its boundaries and contents are always blurred.

    Intelligence has always been tried to measure (psychometry) for this purpose, the level of mental development achieved by an individual was taken as intelligence. In other words, intelligence is a state of mental indicators that can be measured and quantified, that is, what can be determined by a particular psychometric test. It is quite clear that tests do not determine intelligence as such, but only its manifestations, that is, some of its mental components, such as memory, the ability to generalize, etc.

    Some parameters of intelligence, however, not only cannot be measured, but are generally difficult to study. For example, this applies to the motivation of cognitive activity, the level of development of cognitive needs, for the purposes that an individual pursues in his mental activity, as well as taking into account the individual's cultural environment and its requirement for intelligence. Therefore, it seems quite natural that modest formal indicators of intelligence, established by special tests, can be combined with a high level of real achievements of the individual and vice versa. It is a well-known fact, in particular, that people who consistently show impressive results on testing, in real life often turn out to be nothing special that is not outstanding from the gray mass of people. There are also cases when an individual who is invisible in the smooth and familiar conditions of life suddenly turns out to be a very significant person in other, extreme, requiring remarkable intellectual abilities; for example, he makes a rapid career and becomes an influential person during a war, revolution, crisis, epidemic or a series of natural disasters.

    Retrospective studies of the intelligence of outstanding personalities, who are obviously assigned sky-high intellectual coefficients (Goethe at the age of 17 – 190%, at the age of 17-26-210%, Voltaire – 180% and 190%, respectively, Darwin-155% and 165%, Newton-150% and 190%), are a curious reconstruction, but nothing more. In Rembrandt, we note, it is equal to 130% and 145%, in comparison with Goethe, the painter, according to indirect psychometry, is, therefore, someone like a moron. Current tests fail to identify potential geniuses or lead, when applied to them, to ludicrous results.

Leave a Reply