5 Answers

  1. Very simply: dopamine – determination, serotonin-joy of life.

    The rush of dopamine feels like ” itchy hands.” I want to go and do it right now. Get on the Internet, eat pizza, write to a loved one, draw a dick on the wall, go start a new business, become a great person, and so on.

    A rush of serotonin feels like ” a bird flew by, what a joy!” Serotonin colors life in rainbow tones, and under serotonin, a person feels events that happen to him as very positive. The sun is shining! The girl on the street smiled! I can breathe! Life is beautiful!

  2. Dopamine – feeling of anticipation, craving for movement, motivation, purposefulness.
    Serotonin – feelings of being needed by society. Social satisfaction and encouragement. The primary function on the psyche is the suppression of negative emotions. Serotonin does not affect positive emotions, so it is a mistake to call it the happiness hormone. It only suppresses negativity. Therefore, it seems that the person is wearing pink glasses.

  3. Dopamine

    This neurotransmitter is one of the most important links in the “reward (reward, internal reinforcement) system”. The same “carrot” that regulates and controls behavior, causing a sense of pleasure or satisfaction, which affects the processes of motivation and learning. Natural light is produced in large quantities during subjectively positive experiences, whether it is performing an important task or pleasant bodily sensations. Record holders in stimulating the release of dopamine – sex and delicious food. The brain uses this neurotransmitter for evaluation and motivation, fixing important actions for survival and procreation – we have a need to move towards the goal, anticipating receiving a “reward”. In Schultz's experiment, according to the classical Pavlov scheme, a conditioned reflex was created in a monkey: after a light signal, juice was injected into the monkey's mouth. It was installed:

    • when the juice was injected unexpectedly, without a warning signal, the activity of dopamine neurons increased.

    • during the training phase, the activity of dopamine neurons continued to increase in response to the injection of juice

    • when the conditioned reflex was formed, the activity of neurons increased after the signal was given, and the injection of juice itself did not affect the activity of these neurons in any way (so dopamine is not simply associated with pleasure)

    • if no juice was injected after the light signal, the activity of dopamine neurons decreased

    In general terms, if the expectation of a reward is met, the brain reports it by releasing dopamine. If the reward is not followed, a decrease in dopamine levels signals that expectations have diverged from reality. So the work of dopamine neurons encodes not good news as such, but the degree to which it meets expectations.�

    Artificially, the production of dopamine increases several times with the use of narcotic substances. Amphetamine directly stimulates its release, affecting the mechanisms of neurotransmitter transport, and cocaine and some other psychostimulants block the natural mechanism of dopamine reuptake, increasing its concentration in the synapse (the point of contact between two neurons). If the “reward system” is over-stimulated, the brain gets used to artificially increased dopamine levels, producing less of it and reducing the number of receptors. This encourages the addict to increase the dose of the drug to obtain a satisfactory effect, which later leads to a violation of metabolic processes in the brain and in the long term causes serious damage to the health of the brain and the entire body as a whole.�


    Along with dopamine, tak is one of the main broad-spectrum neurotransmitters, which is often called the “happiness hormone”or” good mood hormone”. Interestingly, the structure of serotonin is similar to that of the powerful hallucinogen LSD – it acts as an agonist (a substance that increases the response of the receptor) �of some serotonin receptors, inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, increasing its content.�

    Under the influence of serotonin, areas of the brain responsible for the process of cognitive activity are stimulated – obtaining new knowledge causes a sense of satisfaction. In the spinal cord, serotonin has a positive effect on motor activity and muscle tone – this condition can be described by the expression “I will roll mountains”. Well, most importantly, it regulates the emotional state and mood – with an increase in serotonergic activity, we get the whole spectrum of emotions from satisfaction to euphoria. Despite the obvious “stimulating” nature, serotonin reduces aggressive behavior and impulsivity in animals and humans, reduces pain sensitivity.

    Decreased serotonin levels lead to depressive states, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and severe migraines. Hyperactivation of serotonin receptors can lead to hallucinations, and the accumulation of serotonin when using large doses of antidepressants or drugs leads to deadly serotonin intoxication-serotonin syndrome.

  4. It is necessary to distinguish between the effects of these two substances (dopamine and serotonin) on the brain and on the rest of the body.�

    The fact is that there is a “blood-brain barrier”, due to which many substances introduced into the blood of a person do not reach the neurons of the brain. Therefore, depending on how these substances got into the body or in what part of it they were synthesized, the effect will be different.

    In the brain, both serve as neurotransmitters (i.e., they are used by brain cells to communicate with each other). The violation of the formation and dopamine, and serotonin can greatly affect the human condition, but in different ways: dopamine in the brain affects volitional processes (low dopamine depression-will be enough-a man full of energy and ambition — a lot of glitches, mania, parnoia…); serotonin also influences more on the emotional sphere (can be headaches, too depressed, while its excess — excitement, euphoria, insomnia, anxiety…). That is, there is something in common, but there are enough differences.

    dopamineOn the rest of the body,� affects approximately like its related adrenaline and norepinephrine: increased blood pressure, increased heart function, increases urination. In general, dopamine is regularly used in modern medicine (for example, in emergency situations). But serotonin in practical medicine is used rarely and very specifically (to stop blood). When administered, it causes completely different sensations: pain at the injection site and along the vein, heart pain, difficulty breathing, nausea, abdominal pain, increased reflexes and other troubles. And in small doses, serotonin can normalize the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, but for this it is not administered. But substances similar to serotonin have a narcotic effect. And yes, serotonin is quite dangerous.

  5. Dopamine in large doses is produced by taking alcohol, smoking, and taking cocaine. The pulse rate increases, the mood increases, and the state of nervous excitement increases. Serotonin is like an ancient granny compared to dopamine. This garcon is more manifested by calmness on the verge of drowsiness, a sense of serenity. Like after a heavy lunch, after which you want to lie down for an hour.

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