2 Answers

  1. Diamat's basic assumption is that by” inverting ” Hegel's pseudological laws, one can get some special information about the world that no other science provides. By 1909, neither the Bolsheviks nor the Mensheviks believed in this nonsense. The majority of educated Bolsheviks believed that the” laws ” of dialectics did not work at all and were not needed in science and politics, while the majority of Mensheviks believed that the “laws” of dialectics worked only in the spiritual sphere, i.e., exactly as Hegel had invented them without any “inversion”.

    The irony is that the lawyer Lenin, who never studied natural sciences, believed that the” laws ” of dialectics were very important for Marxism, and as a result of hardware intrigues, the entire educated part of the Bolshevik faction, which was positivist to Hegel, survived from the Bolshevik faction. In 1910, all the formed Bolsheviks joined the group “Forward“, only Kamenev, Zinoviev and Krupskaya remained with Lenin. It was this small group of “loyal Leninists”, with the participation of the Menshevik Deborin, that created the infamous curiosity that went down in history as ” the philosophy of dialectical materialism.”

    In all subsequent years, Soviet philosophy was purged of Hegelianism, but it was never completely successful, and in different years this pre-scientific metaphysics was defended by defenders of varying degrees of stupidity and intelligence. The last one who tried to defend the” laws ” of dialectics was E. Ilyenkov, who got drunk and committed suicide on this basis. Drunkenness is generally typical for dialectic adherents.

    Matter is primary, consciousness is secondary.
    Matter (according to Lenin) is an objective (i.e., independent of the ideal in the minds of subjects) reality given to us (subjects) in sensations.
    Roughly speaking, a materialist is someone who believes that there is only a material world, and the ideal, psyche, consciousness is only a “reflection” of this “external” world in the brain processes of people.
    What to read:
    Lenin, “Materialism and Empirio-criticism” is a wonderful book about materialism and a bad one about empirio-criticism. (An analysis of Mach's feelings, which Lenin did not understand, I also advise you to read – in fact, a materialist book)
    In order to put the dialectic invented by Hegel “from head to foot”, Engels wrote the book “Dialectic of Nature”. In this book, he also deduced three, in his opinion, main laws of dialectics:
    1) the unity and struggle of opposites;
    2) the transition of quantitative changes to qualitative ones and vice versa;
    3) the negation of negation.
    You should start with these books

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