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  1. The path of knowledge is the eternal path from ignorance to knowledge, from phenomenon to essence, from first-order essence to second-order essence, and so on. Knowledge is wonder. A person is surprised by what he wants to know. Knowledge begins with doubt. Doubt and the unknown coexist with each other. And some philosophers believe that the unknown is the most precious possession of man.

    Plato also wrote that everything in this world is a weak image of the supreme economy, in which there is much that is dubious and unknowable. The unknowable is when we trust our impressions. And impressions arise when we glide on the surface of phenomena and processes, which we can do with dexterity and speed. Cognition is not limited to impressions. It unfolds as a very complex process, encompassing all the acts and phenomena that form and develop a cognitive image.

    In addition to sensory contemplation and perception of things, imagination, cognition involves deep abstract thinking. Cognition is the process of comprehending objective reality by thought. At the present stage of development of science and society, many problems of epistemology (the doctrine of universal mechanisms and laws of human cognitive activity) require further development. It should be emphasized that the problems of epistemology were formed in the process of developing the needs of society and science as a whole. Knowledge itself and its study are not something unchangeable, given once and for all, but rather something that develops according to certain laws.

    As we know from the history of philosophy, epistemology has a long history, the origins of which go back to ancient philosophy. Let's recall some points. In ancient philosophy, especially in Greek, deep ideas were put forward about the relationship of object and subject, truth and error, concreteness of truth, dialectics of the process of cognition, the object of cognition, the structure of human thinking. A major step in the development of the theory of knowledge was made by European philosophy of the XVII-XVIII centuries. (by Modern philosophers), in which epistemological problems took a central place.

    Francis Bacon, the founder of experimental science at this time, believed that the sciences that study cognition, thinking, are the key to all others, because they contain “mental tools”that give the mind instructions or warn it against delusions (“idols”). Raising the question of a new method, a “different logic”, F. Bacon emphasized that the new logic — unlike purely formal logic-should proceed not only from the nature of the mind, but also from the nature of things, not “invent and invent”, but discover and express what nature does, that is, be meaningful, objective.

    Bacon distinguished three main ways of knowing:

    1) ” The Spider's Way — – deducing truths from pure consciousness. This road was the main scholasticism, which he criticized, noting that the subtlety of nature is many times greater than the subtlety of reasoning;
    2) “way of the ant” — a narrow empiricism, a collection of disparate facts without their conceptual generalization;
    3) “way of the bees” connection the first two tracks, a combination of abilities, experience and reason, that is sensual and rational.

    In advocating this combination, however, Bacon gave priority to experiential knowledge. He developed the dialectic of the process of cognition. In the dialogue Theaetetus, Plato masterfully explores the concept of cognition. He comes to this conclusion: knowledge is “true opinion coupled with logos” (i.e., “rational judgment” confirming the truth of the opinion), or, to put it more simply, knowledge is “confirmed true opinion”. This so-called three-part theory of knowledge can be expressed even more formally: a person S knows P if and only if:

    1. P is true
    2. P there is an opinion of the person S
    3. S has a reasonable judgment about P

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