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  1. Empiricism — empiricism (from other Greek έμπειρία-experience — – a direction in the theory of knowledge that recognizes sensory sensations as a source of knowledge and assumes that the content of knowledge can either be presented as a description of this sensation, or reduced to it. Sensualism (from the French sensualisme, lat. sensus-perception, feeling, sensation) – a direction in the theory of knowledge, according to which sensations and perceptions !!!!!! – the main and main form of reliable cognition. It opposes rationalism. The basic principle of sensualism is “there is nothing in the mind that is not in the senses.” The principle of sensualism refers to the sensory form of cognition, which includes representation in addition to sensation and perception. As a teaching, extreme sensualism gained great popularity in philosophical circles and contained the following postulates: – the mind receives all external experience and knowledge only with the help of sensations; “born ideas don't exist, the mind is a blank slate; “there is nothing in the mind that has not previously appeared in the senses; -the external world is the source of knowledge; – reason has only a derived meaning. Источник: Sensualism in psychology The ideas and propositions of sensualism had a powerful influence on the psychological science of the 18th century. The German physiologist and psychologist Wilhelm Wundt began to develop experimental psychology: he set up experiments whose task was to identify the primary sensations that make up the architectonics of the human soul. Sensualism in psychology is a paradigm that emerged from philosophical teaching, studying mental life with a primary reliance on sensory impressions. Later, sensualism was transformed into associative psychology. What is the difference between empiricism and sensualism? Modern philosophy (XVII – XVIII centuries) faced problems in understanding the world and the criteria of truth. There is a rapid development of the main three areas of philosophy-rationalism, sensualism and empiricism. The empirical and sensualistic paths are similar in their basic positions and are opposed to rationalism. Empiricism is a method discovered by the English philosopher F. Bacon. Empiricism is based on sensory experience as a measure of knowledge and a source of knowledge. F. Bacon distinguished between the methods of sensualism, rationalism and empiricism. Sensualists are “ants” who are content with what they have collected. Rational “spiders” spin a web of reasoning out of themselves. Empiricists – “bees” extract nectar from various flowers, but arrange the extracted material according to their experience and skill. The main differences between empiricism and sensualism according to F. Bacon: Empiricism recognizes the importance of feelings, but in close union with reason. The mind is able to extract truth from sensory experience. Passive contemplation of nature in sensualism is replaced by active intervention in order to learn the secrets. Sensualism-pros and cons. Scientific psychology has always been based on philosophical concepts, drawing from them the centuries-old experience of knowing the soul. Sensualism has had a significant impact on the development of experimental and associative psychology. By analyzing the spectrum of feelings and sensations in the work “Treatise on Sensations”, E. Condillac made a significant contribution to science, which was appreciated by psychologists. Later, psychology recognized the limitations of sensualism in the processes of cognition. Disadvantages of sensualism revealed in the course of experiments: A thought act is not equivalent to an association of sensations. Human consciousness is much more complex than a set of sensory impressions. The content of the intellect is not limited to sensory images and sensations. Behavioral motivation and the role of actions in building impressions cannot be explained by sensualism. Источник:

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