3 Answers

  1. Most often – severe anxiety.

    We make choices based on the emotions we experience. If a certain option makes us happy, then we will most often do so.

    However, people with very high background anxiety feel anxious in response to all possible choices. They feel that whatever they choose, something bad has happened.

    It can also be difficult to choose if none of the options evoke emotions at all.

  2. The question is really good!

    At the foundation, we pay special attention to the mechanisms of brain activity during professional development. Therefore, I will consider the issue from this point of view. At the same time, it is as simple as possible.

    The dopamine circuit is associated with a person's actions in the external environment, which is responsible for motivation. That is, if we see a reward in front of us, we make a decision to act. However, the dopamine system also evaluates the probability of achieving this reward. That is, if the external environment is uncertain, then dopamine is not released (I will immediately make a reservation that the maximum release of dopamine is not in a completely controlled and defined environment, but in an environment with controlled uncertainty, when the task is difficult, but you can do it. This is also called “thread state”).

    Let's look at an example. I think getting $ 1 million is a very good reward for our dopamine system (and therefore for us). But that doesn't encourage you to act right now. Why? A very risky and uncertain plan of action to achieve. So you sit still. But for example, you are told, buy a lottery ticket and you can win this amount. Here, the brain does not evaluate statistical probability. The brain evaluates the probability of getting results from actions. He thinks like this: go to the kiosk (action) and get a ticket (result). These are predictable actions, they are easy and do not require results. That's why lotteries are booming.

    Summary of this block: the dopamine system always evaluates the probability of a result in the course of an action and the labor cost of this action. Therefore, if the result is clear, but the actions are not clear, then the brain will think for a long time (as in the example, to get $ 1 million – what, then of course you need to think, but how to do it is not clear at all, well, you probably need to do a business, but what, etc. there are many terms and the idea remains an idea)

    The second example that I want to analyze. We all know that eating healthy is good, but smoking is bad. We understand this with our consciousness. But at the same time, we eat sweet and fatty foods and completely smoke another cigarette. Why? The dopamine system is connected to the pleasure center. And this system remembers those actions that lead with minimal effort to getting pleasure. Therefore, for a person to eat broccoli is a state of “need” (translated for the body-spend your willpower). But I want to eat a cake. To start eating broccoli , you need to work with goal setting and delayed gratification. These are separate practices. There is a well-known experiment on this topic, when children were given cookies and said: “We will leave now, but if you wait for us to return and do not eat the cookie, you will get another one.” Children who waited longer achieved more success in life (as the results of the study show). This is the skill of working with a deferred reward.

    Summary of this section: it is not always the case that a person wants to achieve the goals that he or she has set for himself or herself

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  3. There is a term Buridan's Donkey (a philosophical paradox named after Jean Buridan) – this is a phenomenon when it is difficult to decide between two identical treats. There is also a term, determinism-this is when a choice in your opinion can affect your future, which is caused by slowing down the evaluation of the result of each choice.

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