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  1. Philosophy is a form of worldview, and a worldview is a set of human ideas about the world and their place in it, which is a regularizer of their behavior.

    Worldview questions are such questions as ” what is a person?”, ” why did I come to this world?”, ” what is my place in the world and what should I do in this regard?”, ” how can I distinguish true knowledge from false?”, ” what is the greatest value in the world?” As I say to students during the first lecture, a vivid example of a worldview question is Raskolnikov's question from Crime and Punishment: “Am I a trembling creature, or do I have the right?”

    Philosophy is compared with other forms of worldview, including religion. All forms of worldview – mythological, religious, etc. “they answer the same questions, and that's the similarity. If we talk about differences, the difference is in the methods.

    Philosophy is an attempt to rationally answer ideological questions. That is, philosophy calls not to take anything for granted, not to be guided by customs and traditions, but to question everything and think carefully, to weigh the arguments “for”and ” against”.

    Whether this approach is good or bad for solving ideological problems is an open question. For example, some religious person may well object that all thoughts can lead you away from the truth, and the truth is very simple, it is in the Scriptures and is understood by faith, the heart, and not the mind. And everything else is from the evil one.

    Nevertheless, philosophers are convinced that it is good to answer worldview questions rationally. First of all, when you think through your position well, you realize that you can't prove it, but can only rationalize it. It teaches a certain intellectual humility and tolerance towards other points of view. Secondly, through rational justification, a space is opened for dialogue and discussion between carriers of different worldviews. For example, a discussion about religion with an intelligent and rational believer (or atheist) seems to me much preferable to communication with a religious fanatic (or “militant atheist”).

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