2 Answers

  1. “The Theory of Justice” is the most significant work in political theory at the moment, which explains the concept of “justice” within human society, striving for maximum objectivity. Its author, John Rolls, highlights the problem of meritocracy (to each according to merit) and the problem of unequal distribution of opportunities among individuals in society. In short, the theory is that if each individual has the same conditions for starting out as a social unit, this will meet both the legal equality of people and the requirements of meritocracy, which, according to Rawls, is the most sensible approach to achieving the main goal of any society – justice.

  2. The Theory of Justice in the singular and in quotation Marks (“Theory of Justice”) is a book by John Rawls. The theory of justice can also be described as a special direction in American ethics, which has been actively developing in the last 50 years. Rawls in this case will be one of the representatives of this direction. Despite all the variety of concepts proposed in this tradition, it is possible to trace the unity of goals-a description of the structure of a just society. It is also worth noting that most of these theories (at least the most significant ones) are created within the framework of liberalism, which is also very heterogeneous. The key figure in this American theory of justice is considered to be the named J. R. R. Tolkien. It is associated with the resuscitation of interest in political ethics and the transformation of the concept of justice into the central concept of modern political philosophy. Rawls ' theory assumes the need for an equal distribution of primary goods, rights and freedoms, and career opportunities, unless unequal distribution serves the benefit of the least successful part of society. Rawls ' theory of justice has a deontological character – duty has priority over the good. The author also describes it as a “theory of justice as honesty”, since one of its central requirements is honest equality of opportunities. Alternative projects were proposed by R. Dvorkin, R. Nozik, U. Kimlika, and D. Goth artists who start from Rawls ' concept and critically rethink it.

    If we talk about a lot of theories of justice, then it is not possible to tell about them in a nutshell. Among the most significant figures, without claiming to be complete, I would single out Aristotle, Hobbes, Locke, Kant, Mill, Bentham, Sidgwick.

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